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SCSS standards

Origami has adopted Sass and specifically the most common SCSS variant, as the preferred way of declaring style information. The following rules apply to creating styles for components, but could also be adopted in large part for product developers.

Sass features should be used only where they result in increased clarity and reuse. Care should be taken that the resulting CSS is not compromised by unnecessary Sass nesting.

Sass version

Component developers and Origami build tools must use LibSass version ~3.2.0.

Syntax convention rules

Sass must validate using the following SASS Lint rules:


Naming conventions and encapsulation

Sass does not have proper encapsulation or scope, so strict adherence to namespacing rules is essential.

  • Class selectors (.) and Sass variables ($) must be prefixed with the module name, and written as hyphen separated lowercase strings
    • GOOD: .o-thing--large, $o-grid-mq-type: width;
    • BAD: .largething, $GridIsResponsive: true;
  • Pseudo class :not should not be used to avoid high specificity issues. Prefer classes and duplicated properties over specificity.
    • GOOD: .o-forms-input {} .o-forms-radio {}
    • BAD: .o-forms-input {} .o-forms-input:not([type=radio]) {} .o-forms-input[type=radio] {}
  • Mixins and functions must be prefixed with the module name, and written in camel case
    • GOOD: @mixin oGalleryCalculatePadding()
    • BAD: @mixin calculate-padding()
  • Tag selectors (unprefixed, e.g. h1) must not be used alone, but may be used if prefixed with a correctly namespaced selector
    • GOOD: .o-thing__content > h1
    • BAD: h1
  • Placeholder selectors (%) must not be used to reference other modules, but may be used within a module (Foreign placeholders have been used historically, see Issue #254, but modules which still have them must drop them in any major release)
  • ID selectors (#) must not be used at all
  • Modules must not set or modify any CSS or Sass element in another module’s namespace.
  • Styles must not affect any element except those which:
    • are in a portion of owned DOM; or
    • have an existing class in the module’s namespace.


  • Specificity must be minimised. Use BEM, especially if the component might contain other components (e.g. in the case of a ‘grid’ component), to avoid one component’s styles affecting the appearance of a component within it. Where a component can never contain any child components (e.g. a ‘table’ component or a ‘gallery’ component), they may instead choose to use simple class names and increase specificity with the module root selector as a parent.
  • Selectors should contain a single operand, with the following exceptions:

    • To prefix a class for feature targeting, where the first operand is a documented Modernizr test class name, and the second is a correctly namespaced selector (the feature selector should be configurable, and set to the Modernizr value by default)
      • GOOD: $o-tweet-featureflag-svg .o-tweet__twitter-logo
    • To apply styles to naked tags (those without a class) inside an element marked with a module specific class. In these cases, use a child operator to minimise the chance of interference with other modules
      • ACCEPTABLE: .o-thing__content h1
      • BETTER: .o-thing__content > h1
    • To use the adjacent element operator:
      • GOOD: .o-table__caption + .o-table__heading
  • Combination selectors, those that specify a combination of tag name, class and/or ID in the same selector token must not be used
    • GOOD: .o-thing
    • BAD: div.o-thing, span#output-area
  • Increased specificity must not be used to overcome an existing overly-specific selector - make the existing one less specific, or use new class names.


ARIA roles should be used to indicate state, except where state is switched automatically by the browser and selectable using pseudo-classes. The following states should be considered:

StateDescriptionDefine usingStyle guidance

The user has a hoverable pointer and it is positioned above the element. Component developers *must* prefix all :hover pseudo-classes using an o-hoverable feature flag.

:hover Having a hover effect hints to the user that clicking the element will do something. Hover effects should be subtle, and if possible, suggestive of the action that will occur on click
Focused The element is the current target of keyboard input. If the user types something, it will affect this element. :focus Any element on the page that is interactive (not just text fields!) must have a focused style that is distinct from its normal style. Browsers will add a default focused style to elements that are normally interactive, and the effect is typically a glow. Simple text links need a focus state too.
Busy The element is currently being updated. [aria-busy] Busy states are typically indicated by a spinner or progress indicator being added to, or replacing, the content of the element
Selected The element is a member of a list and is the currently selected item (or one of several currently selected items). If it can be deselected at all, usually this can only be done by choosing another option in the list. Not to be confused with Active (which indicates interaction is in progress) or pressed (which is toggleable). [aria-selected] The selected state should be strong and easily distinguishable from the standard state. It often inverts the colours, so things that are light-on-dark become dark-on-light when selected.
Disabled The element is normally interactive, but interactivity is currently unavailable. :disabled When disabled, elements are usually displayed with less contrast and colour and with a flatter appearance.
Active The element is currently being interacted with by the user. Usually indicates that a mouse button or finger is pressed down on the element. :active We typically do not style this state.
Invalid Applies to elements that accept and store a value entered by the user (e.g. text fields). The value entered into the element does not conform to the format expected by the application. [aria-invalid] Form fields in this state are typically displayed with a red border or background and may be suffixed with an icon and a message indicating the reason why the input was invalid.
Pressed The element is a toggle (you can interact with it once to activate it, and again to deactivate it) and it is currently activated. Distinct from a checkbox because it activates an effect immediately, while a checkbox typically records data that isn't acted upon until a form is submitted. It is also possible to distinguish elements that are pressable but are not currently pressed. [aria-pressed] This can often be similar to the selected state, but also commonly found in a 'toggle switch' style. In 3D designs, the pressed state is often shown concave instead of convex.
Expanded The element, or another element that it controls, is currently expanded. Appropriate to use this for flyout or dropdown navigation menus. [aria-expanded] When applied to menus, this should sit well with the selected and hover states. Expanded should be stronger than hover or selected.

By default, a module’s style rules must render it in a form suitable for use without JavaScript (which may involve hiding it completely). Any modifications to that style which are desired if the JavaScript component of the module is present must be prefixed with .o-modulename--js.

Feature flags and UA targeting

Style rules that are intended to apply to only a subset of user agents should use feature flags to apply the rules (which is a progressive enhancement technique). Where feature flagging is not possible, developers may choose to target specific user agents (a graceful degradation technique).

Feature flags

The following are acceptable types of feature flag, in order of preference:

  1. A Sass variable in the current module’s namespace, set by default to the name of an appropriate Modernizr feature-detect, e.g.

    $oModuleIfInlineSVG: ‘inlinesvg’ !default; $oModuleIfInlineSVG .oModuleThing { background: url(…inline SVG…); }

  2. A function call to another module, whose purpose is to provide a feature detect:

    @import ‘o-hoverable/main’; #{oHoverableGetFlagSelector()} .oModuleThing:hover { text-decoration: underline; }

  3. A Sass variable imported from another module’s namespace, where the purpose of the module is to provide a feature detect:

    @import ‘o-hoverable/main’; $o-hoverable-if-hover-enabled .oModuleThing:hover { text-decoration: underline; }

Component developers must not use feature flags that would need to be set manually by a product developer (ie those that do not have feature detect code within Modernizr or feature-detection modules in Origami). Component developers must assume that feature flag classes will be set on the documentElement, ie. the HTML tag.

UA targeting

Where necessary, components may provide style rules targeted at specific user agents.

In order of preference, when targeting styles at a specific user agent, component developers should:

  1. Assess if the proportion of impacted users worth the fix
  2. Tweak designs to accommodate most browsers instead
  3. Favour browser hacks to avoid any external dependencies — make sure to document each time why a hack was used:

    .el { background: url(‘data:image/png;base64,/* data */’) bottom right no-repeat;

     // IE < 8 don't support data-uri, fallback to border bottom instead:
     *border-bottom: 1px solid #eeeeee;
     *background-image: none;  }
  4. Rely on JavaScript user-agent sniffing (as a last resort in some rare edge cases)

Component developers must not use IE conditional comments to target user agents (use browser hacks instead).


  • Component CSS should not use !important. Valid use cases for !important exist, but usually only at the product level. If !important is used in a component, a comment must be left in code to explain why it was necessary.
  • CSS expressions and behaviours should not be used, except to polyfill essential features for older browsers (e.g. boxsizing.htc for box-sizing: border-box)
  • Lengths should be expressed in pixel or percentage units, not ems or rems, with the exception of line-height which also accepts unitless values. A comment should be left in code when modern (vh, vw…) or relative units (em…) are used to document their purpose.

No @extends for foreign selectors

The @extends command creates unpredictable cascades and unreliable results when used to extend placeholders defined in other modules, because the load order is unpredictable. It must not be used in that way unless a dependent module can only be consumed via @extends for historical reasons.

Extending a placeholder defined within the same module is permitted.

Sass variables

  • If a variable could potentially be used as a configurable option in products consuming the module, the variable must be defined with !default and added to the module’s documentation
  • Variables that are internal to a module and which should not be used or set outside of it should be defined without !default. Since Sass has no private scope, these underscore variables are not protected from overwriting so we use convention to distinguish them from public variables (see ‘Privacy’ below)
  • Modules must not overwrite variables defined by another module. Instead, a module may define a new variable in its own namespace and set it to the value of the dependency’s variable.
  • Variables should be defined in a dedicated file.
  • Variables intended for use externally by consuming products and modules should be defined by their purpose, rather than their value: e.g. $o-colors-skyline-bg rather than $o-colors-beige

Privacy and imports

Any object (e.g. class, mixin, function, variable) that is intended for public use (i.e. may be referenced by code outside of its own module) must be documented in the module’s README. All other objects must be prefixed with an underscore character, and must not be documented in the README (they may be documented in code comments).

If a module contains SCSS files other than the main file listed in bower.json, the file names of those files must be prefixed with an underscore, and all such files must be imported before any other Sass code. All import statements should be in the module’s main file.


Modules are responsible for providing responsive behaviours where appropriate, but take care not to build in responsive behaviour that may not be desired by the product.

  • Modules that in most or all use cases will span the full width of a page (e.g. o-header, o-footer, o-grid) may contain media queries, or include mixins from other modules that contain media queries. If so, the breakpoints in the media queries must be configurable as Sass variables.
  • All other modules must provide mixins (and concrete classes if not in silent mode) to modify their appearance to suit different sizes of container, e.g. .o-table--compact (class), oTableCompact (mixin) etc. Product developers may then use these mixins to trigger module responsiveness in their own media query breakpoints.
  • When there is no media query support in the user agent (in the case of modules that use media queries) or the module’s responsive mixins have not been used, the module must render in its most compact visual form.


When styles refer to external resources such as fonts and images from an Origami module, the module must use o-assets to declare paths to these resources in a robust, build-agnostic fashion. Please see the module’s repository for documentation and the rationale behind enforcing this approach.

Where external resources are not within Origami modules, a protocol-relative URL must be used (see issue 173).

“Silent” styles

Silent styles means SCSS code that compiles to an empty string, but provides mixins or variables that can be included or used by a dependent module. Some modules can support silent styles easily, while others rely on class names to link elements to behaviour defined in JavaScript.

Where a module contains only CSS, it should support silent styles. Where JavaScript is also present and depends on class names, a module may choose to support silent styles by providing an API to configure non-default class names. If it does it should be called setClasses and accept an object, like so:

	wrapper: "custom-wrapper-class",
	item: "other-custom-class"

Modules that support silent mode must include a $o-{modulename}-is-silent variable, which must be set to true by default. When a module supports silent mode, styles that would normally be output as class selectors must instead be defined as mixins, with the same styles. E.g.:

@mixin oThingFoo {
	margin-top: 1em;

If the original selector is not a class selector then the mixin can use a syntax suggestive of the original selector, which must be documented. E.g.:

@mixin oGridSizingS3 {
	width: 30%;
[data-o-grid-sizing~='S3'] {
	@include oGridSizingS3();

Modules that make use of styles defined in other modules that support silent mode must use those styles silently by @includeing the appropriate mixin:

@mixin oAnotherThingFoo {
	@include oThingFoo();
	margin-top: 1em;
.o-anotherthing-foo {
	@include oAnotherThingFoo();

When a module that supports silent mode has output the CSS, it must also reset the value of $o-{modulename}-is-silent to true:

@if ($o-expander-is-silent == false) {
	.o-expander__content {
		@include oExpanderContent;

	.o-expander__toggle {
		@include oExpanderToggle;

	// Prevent o-expander styles being output again
	$o-expander-is-silent: true !global;

This prevents the accidental output of styles if the module is included twice in the same product. For example given module A and module B both have a dependency of module C. Where module A is imported first and sets $o-{modulename}-is-silent: false when importing module C, the variable is then set for when module B - imported second - also imports module C as well, which would cause module C’s styles to be output a second time.

Finally, in documentation, modules must provide information about both silent and non-silent methods, where supported, documenting the silent mode integration first.

Code organisation and formatting


When listing multiple comma-separated selectors, each one must be placed on a new line. Each property must be on a new line and indented (type of indent, tabs or spaces, is not standardised: developers must respect whatever indent type is already in use when editing existing modules)

.o-footer__link:focus {
	font-size: 12px;
	color: $o-color-link-text;

Files and folders

Sass variables, mixins and functions should be in their own files, separate from the code that uses them.

Comments and documentation using SassDoc



Before adding comments, consider whether the code can be made more expressive in order to remove the need for a comment. If the code is as expressive as it can reasonably be, but the intent is still not clear, then comments should be used to supplement the code.

Avoid obvious comments:

 * Footer
footer {}
  • Comments should be brief and to the point.
  • Comments should be used to explain code whose purpose is to fix obscure browser bugs. Ideally the comment should include a URL to a page giving full details of the bug.
  • Comments should be used to explain mixins and functions
  • Comments may be used to indicate logically separate sections of files, however separate files is generally preferred